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Professional orchestras switched to blind auditions, and the hiring of female musicians went up dramatically—but how much?

Professional orchestras switched to blind auditions, and the hiring of female musicians went up dramatically—but how much?


In response to accusations of bias in the hiring process, many major symphony orchestras switched to blind auditions during the 1970s and 1980s. These auditions consisted of an instrumentalist performing from behind a screen so that his or her identity was hidden.

A study of the new audition policy conducted by the National Bureau of Economic Research found that acceptance of women players increased by up to 55% after the blind auditions were implemented.

Out of the top five symphony orchestras in the United States, 25% of all players are female. In 1970, less than 5% of those players were women.

Despite an increased acceptance of women into the workforce, labor inequality on the basis of gender still exists. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, women working full-time still earn just 77 cents to the dollar compared to men.

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Freud was so addicted to cocaine that he used to give it to his friends and family as a gift. Learn more


Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis and one of the most famous intellectuals in history, was addicted to cocaine.

Freud initially began using the drug as a research experiment. He would take varying amounts of the drug and document its effects in his research papers. Of course, the drug is addictive, and Freud eventually became hooked.

His most thorough medical and psychological analysis of cocaine can be found in his 1884 journal entitled 'Uber Coca.'

Freud also gave cocaine as a gift to his family and friends. In one instance, he claimed he gave his fiance Martha the drug "to make her strong and give her cheeks some color."

(Source)

Freud was so addicted to cocaine that he used to give it to his friends and family as a gift. Learn more

Freud was so addicted to cocaine that he used to give it to his friends and family as a gift. Learn more


Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis and one of the most famous intellectuals in history, was addicted to cocaine.

Freud initially began using the drug as a research experiment. He would take varying amounts of the drug and document its effects in his research papers. Of course, the drug is addictive, and Freud eventually became hooked.

His most thorough medical and psychological analysis of cocaine can be found in his 1884 journal entitled 'Uber Coca.'

Freud also gave cocaine as a gift to his family and friends. In one instance, he claimed he gave his fiance Martha the drug "to make her strong and give her cheeks some color."

(Source)


I've Read a Lot of Facts Online, But These Completely Blew My Mind


Portland, Oregon was named as a result of a coin flip. What if the coin had landed on the other side?


When Portland was initially founded, it was referred to as The Clearing. The site was founded by two different pioneers from New England—Asa Lovejoy from Boston, Massachusetts and Francis Pettygrove from Portland, Maine. The two pioneers split ownership of the 640-acre area.

In order to decide who would gain naming rights, Lovejoy and Pettygrove flipped a coin. If Pettygrove hadn't won the best out of three matchup, the city might've been named Boston, Oregon.

Portland was officially incorporated into the state of Oregon in 1849.

The coin that the pair used, a copper one-cent piece coined in 1835, was dubbed the Portland Penny. It's now on display at the Oregon Historical Society Museum.

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