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The Rajputs strapped fake elephant trunks on their horses so that the elephants their enemies rode on, would think they are elephant calves and would therefore instinctively not attack!


In the 1500’s the Rajputs of India fought against their enemies, the Mughals.

The Mughals rode on the backs of sword yielding elephants. The swords were strapped to the elephants’ trunks.

The Rajputs were on horseback. One would think this left them at a great disadvantage, but they were obviously aware of the social behavior of elephants.

Elephants will not attack baby elephants. When a baby elephant is orphaned - for whatever reason - other elephants will step in and take care of it.

The Rajputs did not have a herd of orphaned baby elephants, so they improvised. They strapped fake trunks to the heads of their Marwari horses, making them appear to be baby elephants. Instinctively the elephants of their enemies would not become aggressive toward the horses, which they perceived to be young elephants!

The brave and intelligent Marwari warhorses were trained to rear up on their hind legs and to then put their front hooves on the elephant’s forehead. This allowed the horseman to attack the enemy rider with a lance

The Rajputs combined the most useful characteristics of Arabians, Turkumans and local stock to create the Marwari; a fearless and hardy horse breed with which they cleverly defeated endless invasions.

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In the U.S.A. the cost of college text books has risen with 812% over the last 30 years!


The cost of textbooks has risen 812% in the U.S.A. over the last 30 years.

That’s more than healthcare costs, housing prices and college tuition, although all of those have risen faster than the rate of inflation.

So the question is, what is wrong with the textbook market?

Most of it, in fact 80% of the market, is controlled by only four publishers—Pearson, Cengage, Wiley and McGraw-Hill. This leaves them with a near-monopoly and a LOT of power.

The publishers market their products to professors using aggressive sales tactics. The professors assign these textbooks to the students who end up having to pay the prices charged, not the professors.

Students at public four-year colleges are paying about $1,200 per year for textbooks and course materials!

Mark Perry, an economics professor at the University of Michigan says: “Just like the ongoing home price increases and housing bubble of the last decade were unsustainable, there is now growing evidence that rising college textbook prices and the ‘college textbook bubble’ are also unsustainable.”

It has now been established that about one out of every three seniors—and one in four freshmen—often don't buy required textbooks because they just can’t afford it. Many students have reverted to sourcing materials illegally online.

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Our tongues only detect 20% of the salt on potato chips, that is why Lay's developed a new 'designer salt' with the same taste that allows them to use 25% less sodium


The average American consumes about twice the daily recommended limit of salt. Too much salt in the diet can lead to high blood pressure and heart disease.

The manufacturers of Lay’s potato chips have taken note of this problem and have found a way to lessen the risk without compromising on taste.

They're developing a new designer salt.

The crystals of this salt are shaped and sized differently from that of normal salt and will reduce the amount of sodium consumers will ingest while snacking.

Because of the way our tongues perceive salt, 80% of the salt on potato chips are swallowed before we even taste it! Only 20% is dissolved and tasted by our tongues.

That is why the manufacturers of Lay’s will now be using a powdery ingredient that tastes exactly like salt. It will deliver an initial spike of saltiness, then a body of flavor and lingering sensation, said Dr. Yep, who joined the company in June 2009.

When they tested the designer salt in the United States and in the UK, consumers could not tell the difference between the new and the conventional salt.

By 2015, Lay’s should contain 25% less sodium.

Said Indra Nooyi, Chairman of PepsiCo.: "What we want to do with our "fun for you" products is to make them the healthiest "fun for you" products."

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In 1959 the citizens of Sao Paulo were so disgruntled with their government that they voted a rhinoceros into council! She got the most votes - 100,000!


In 1959 voters in Sao Paulo, Brazil, had had enough of their city council and it was time to vote.

There were 540 candidates for the 45 seat council, and among them there was a female rhinoceros named Cacareco, meaning ‘rubbish’!

Obviously the citizens had lost all faith in the human candidates because Cacareco won the election by a landslide.

She gathered 100,000 votes – 15% of the total, and was thereby elected by the people to council!

It turns out some students had printed 200,000 ballots with her name on them. The ballots were, however, all legitimately cast by voters. One of them remarked: "Better to elect a rhino than an ass."

The director of the zoo where the four-legged candidate was housed said he would ask Sao Paulo to pay Cacareco's Councilman's salary. Unfortunately election officials did not find this funny, and nullified all ballots with her name on it and declared a new election was to be held within a week.

This type of protest vote was not the first in Brazilian history. In 1954 the people of Jaboatao voted a goat named ‘Smelly’ into council.

Smelly did not win by such a large margin as Cacareco and therefore the rhinoceros remains the most famous animal candidate in history.

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If you asked the founder of McDonald's what business he was in, the answer would surprise you!


Quick… what business is McDonald's in? If you said in selling fast food, you'd be wrong. At least if you asked the man who founded it. In 1974, Ray Kroc, the man who started the golden arch empire asked an MBA class at the University of Texas, Austin this same question. Of course, everyone said hamburgers. Kroc's answer surprised everyone: he said he was in the real estate business.

Here's the way he explained it: his primary business focus was to sell franchises of the restaurant. He knew, however that real estate and location were the most important factors of success for each franchise. A poorly placed restaurant would go broke. McDonald's is now the single largest owner of real estate in the world.

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