Page 8 - History Facts

Inca surgeons in the year 1000 performed cranium surgery!


When you imagine ancient surgeons, you may wince thinking about the primitive techniques. However, it turns out that Incan surgeons were quite skilled. Judging from remains found in Peru from as far back as 1000 AD, researchers found that surgical techniques were standardized and continually improved upon.

One procedure, known as "trepanation," involved removing part of the skull to treat head injuries. While it may sound counterproductive, it worked. Or it eventually did. Skulls from around 1000 AD show little signs of bone healing, which means that the patient likely died after the procedure. However, by the 1400s, the fatality rate was down to just 10%.

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In a time of crisis, these Titanic crewmembers got fired. Find out what they did.


White Star, the company that managed the crew members on the Titanic, fired all 880 crew members aboard the ship as it was sinking. Once news got out that the ship was going down, White Star immediately thought of all the money they would lose during one of the most tragic losses at sea. In order to maintain their financial status, they fired all crew members and told them that if they survived, they would be on their own in New York City and would be responsible to find their own way home back to the United Kingdom.

Having to support their families back home in England, the crew had nowhere to turn to until famous department store Woolworth’s came to the rescue. At the time, Woolworth’s was one of the largest growing retail chains in the world. The New York City department store understood the struggles the survivors were facing and agreed to hire these survivors. They were allowed to use all the money they earned to buy food and clothing until they got back on their feet. Most of the survivors eventually made it back to England by finding work on other cruise ships heading back to England.

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A young boy survived the gas chamber six times during World War II! He has no idea how


Moshe Peer was 11 years old when he was held captive at the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp during World War II. In 1942, at age 9, Peer and his younger brother and sister were arrested by police in their homeland of France. His mother was sent to Auschwitz and they never saw her again.

He says the memory of the separation from his parents is excruciating and he does not think it is possible to explain the living hell he experienced in the concentration camp. Surviving the horrors was his only priority.

Peer was sent to the gas chamber six times, and survived the horrible experience six times but witnessed the death of the women and children that was with him in the gas chamber. He watched as they all collapsed and died around him.

He said he does not know how or why he was able to survive the ordeal. "Maybe children resist better, I don't know," he said in an interview. Moshe is still haunted by his memories of those times and finds it difficult to sleep at night.

He is very bitter about the way the rest of the world allowed these atrocities to happen for so long. "No one told the Germans not to do it. They had the permission of world," he said.

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Some awesome lists!

Isaac Newton was so devoted to science that he stuck a needle behind his eye to test a hypothesis!


Newton thought that color is infused by pressure on the eye. To prove this, in an optical experiment, Newton stuck a darning needle around the side of his eye until it poked the backside. 

He calmly noted that he saw white, dark, and colored circles when he stirred the needle in his eye. Although it is not known what he concluded from his experiment, Newton argued that light is composed of particles. 

Science later adopted a wave theory of light and color, because of what some experiments found. Newton had some vindication on his theory, though. With the discovery of quantum mechanics, light is now thought to be both a wave and a particle. 

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John Adams said we should all take a bunch of opium if we should discover that there is no God—but he was not an atheist


John Adams was born in 1753 and was the second president of the United States. He is often erroneously referred to as an atheist. This could be because he once said that, if we learn that there is no God or life after death, we should all just take a lot of opium.

According to his biographer David McCullough, "as his family and friends knew, Adams was both a devout Christian, and an independent thinker". Everett said that "Adams strove for a religion based on a common sense sort of reasonableness." Adams maintained that religion must change and evolve toward perfection.

He felt that Christianity was being misinterpreted and misused in the service of superstition, fraud, and unscrupulous power. He believed evil came from within and was not the result of something external.

He recognized the large and small abuses that religious belief tried to justify, but he also believed that religion could be a force for good in individual lives and in society at large. He believed that this view did not only apply to Christianity, but to all religions.

John Adams was aware of and worried about the persecution of minorities and the waging of ‘holy’ wars that usually come with established religion.

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