Page 4 - History Facts

An Irish Army was attacked while at church, when they were low on weapons. They radioed for more whiskey!

In 1961, shortly after the state of Katanga broke away from newly dependent, Republic of Congo-Leopoldville in Africa, Irish troops were sent by the United Nations to the city of Jadotville in Katanga.

Their mission was to protect the Belgian Colonists, but due to a turn in events, the Belgians along with local tribesmen and other European mercenaries attacked the Irish troops while they were attending mass.

They knew they wouldn't be heavily armed while sitting through service. The mercenaries and their help stormed the church in what is now known as The Siege of Jadotville.

Since the Irish state had been established, this was the first time the Irish Army was called to another nation to battle a dispute. It may have been the lack of experience, the fact that they were lightly armed and failing, but during a time of panic, the Irish radioed headquarters stating that, "We will hold out until our last bullet is spent. Could do with some whiskey"

Unfortunately, those remaining bullets did not help them. After five days of battle, the Irish surrendered to the Katangans and were held captive for an entire month. By 1963, Katanga was defeated with the help of UN and its troops.


This solider single-handedly captured 93 Nazis during WWII—all while partially blind! The way he did it is crazy!

Private Leo Major was a Canadian solider eager to fight for his country during World War II. When his Canadian infantry landed on Normandy, they didn't know what to expect. During his first week in Normandy, Major succeeded in taking on eight Nazi soldiers by himself.

Unfortunately, before the last one died, he had time to throw a phosphorus grenade in Major's face causing him to lose all vision in his right eye. Major was known for his dedication to his country and refused to go on medical leave after losing his sight.

When his vehicle drove over a landmine, shortly after, Major broke his back in several places. Again, he refused to go home and continued fighting.

Private Major, along with his best friend, Willy, set out on their next mission, which was to recover Canadian infantry that never returned from a recon mission in the quiet Dutch town of Zwolle. Willy was instantly killed by SS Soldiers. In order to avenge his friend's death, Major strapped himself with an arsenal of weapons and charged the town killing everyone in sight.

He found the missing infantry, brought them back to base and took 93 prisoners of war with him, all by himself. After the battle, the remaining Nazis retreated and the Dutch got possession of Zwolle back.

Private Leo Major was awarded the 2nd highest award for bravery by the Royal Government, The Distinguished Conduct Medal, and passed away in 2008.


Before hops was used in beer recipes, beer could make you hallucinate or even kill you. Read more here:

The earliest mention of beer in history was in the year 974. Today, hops is the main flavoring agent used in beer, but that wasn’t always the case. Before the 11th century, a compound called gruit was where beer got its flavoring. Gruit is made of several different plants, including Hyoscyamus Niger, commonly known as “Stinking Nightshade”.

When Stinking Nightshade is consumed by humans and most animals, it releases chemical to the brain as natural defense system. Side effects from ingesting the plant include hallucinations, dilated pupils, the sensation of flight, extreme energy, flushed skin, and in some cases death. This plant was also used in conjunction with other plants as a remedy for pain.

During the 11th to 16th centuries, beer recipes began to call for hops instead of gruit (along with Stinking Nightshade). Due to the deaths of Stinking Nightshade, a law was set in place. In 1516, The Bavarian Purity Law, also known as the German Purity Law went into effect. It stated, that beer was only allowed to be made using four ingredients: barley, hops, yeast and water. This is the common recipe still used today.


Some awesome lists!

Singapore is the only country in modern history that gained independence against its will. They got kicked out!

In 1963, Singapore merged with the Federation of Malaya together with North Borneo and Sarawak to form Malaysia. It was not a happy, incident-free union. It ended the 144 year British rule of Singapore.

There were many ideological differences between Singapore and the federal government of Malaysia which led to distrust. It resulted in frequent disagreement within politics, economic, financial and social policies. Within a year racial tension increased dramatically. It was fueled by Federal policies of affirmative action, which granted special privileges to the Malays guaranteed under Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia. The Malays also enjoyed more financial and economic privileges. In 1964, racial riots broke out.

To prevent further bloodshed, Singapore was expelled from Malaysia on 7 August 1965 by a unanimous vote of the Parliament of Malaysia. Lee Kuan Yew tearfully announced Singapore’s sovereignty and independence by saying: "For me, it is a moment of anguish. All my life, my whole adult life, I have believed in merger and unity of the two territories."

On that day Singapore became the only nation in modern history to gain independence against its own will. The new state became the Republic of Singapore, with the Yang di-Pertuan Negara becoming President.


Inca surgeons in the year 1000 performed cranium surgery!

When you imagine ancient surgeons, you may wince thinking about the primitive techniques. However, it turns out that Incan surgeons were quite skilled. Judging from remains found in Peru from as far back as 1000 AD, researchers found that surgical techniques were standardized and continually improved upon.

One procedure, known as "trepanation," involved removing part of the skull to treat head injuries. While it may sound counterproductive, it worked. Or it eventually did. Skulls from around 1000 AD show little signs of bone healing, which means that the patient likely died after the procedure. However, by the 1400s, the fatality rate was down to just 10%.



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